Introduction to Microscopy
Primary particles are vacuum dispersed in air or liquid on object glass prior to image analysis and magnified.
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Microscopy and digital image analysis can be used for:
- Determination of particle size distribution
- Particle shape e.g. aspect ratio (ratio between breadth and length) which gives valuable extra information -complementary to laser diffraction – about particle characteristics.
- Overview of particles dispersed in liquid or air.
- Observation of foreign particles in the sample (pollution). Suspicion of pollution should be followed by elemental analysis by EDX/SEM to confirm foreign particles.
- Measurement of object sizes e.g. mesh size of sieves.
It is possible to determine the particle size distribution by number or calculated volume (0.5 µm – 2 cm). For size distribution purposes more than 3000 particles are typically processed.
Instruments and measuring principle
Particle Analytical uses Morphology G3 from Malvern.
|Instrument||Morphologi G3, particle size and particle shape image analyzer from Malvern|
|Particle size||0.5 µm – 1000 µm* (upper limit may be extended up to 10 mm for some applications)|
|Dispersion pressure range||0.5 bar – 5 bar. Dispersion pressure precision: 0.1 bar increments|
|Result||Images and diagram of particle size distribution: Size, shape, transparency, count, location. Aspect ratio, circularity, convexity, elongation, high sensitivity (HS) circularity, solidity fiber elongation, fiber straightness|
|Instrument||Light microscopes (Meiji and Nikon) with digital image analysis software: Image Pro from Media Cybernetics|
|Magnification||x40 – 1000 and x3.5 – 100|
|Sample amount||Particles 1 – 300 µm: 10 – 100 mg. Particles such as granulates and pellets over 300 µm: Min. 1-2 g of substance.|
|Result||Images and diagram of particle size distribution|